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Frothing milk for cappuccino means making a cream, not bubbles. The goal to which we must strive making a perfect cappuccino is to mount milk showing no large bubbles but a fine texture, voluptuous, something that will give, tasting it, a magnificent creamy sensation on the palate and a cream that resist all the time that your client are reading the newspaper at the table, without disappear and leave just a sad Caffelatte.

Given a correct technique, the milk frothing is processed for processing (!) through hot steam, fat and protein in milk, transformation that happens until around 65 degrees. This fact leads us to some considerations.
The milk must be the coldest possible, so we will have more time to work the foam before the milk reaches 65 °
It is difficult to use milk several times because the protein denaturing, in any case we must leave it to cool.
You can not warm up very little milk, we would have few proteins and it become hot too quickly.

The basic rule in milk frothing is the position of the tip of the steamer (or holes where the steam comes out) inside the milk.
If the tip is too deep in milk we will hear a noise deaf and not succeeding to incorporate air not mount the milk.
If the tip is too on the surface noise will become ‘glu glu’ and will be due to make many large bubbles.
The perfect point (what Americans call ‘sweet point’) is about half a centimetre below the surface of milk. As the milk tends to mount (must!) we may need to gradually lower the jug to keep the kettle to the same 0.5 cm.

The position of the tip compared to jug (as if seen from above) should be shifted slightly on one side, so as to enable the milk to rotate, driven by steam, forming a twist, a vortex..

Abroad is often used a thermometer put in the milk to see when the temperature reached 65 degrees Celsius.
in Italy this habit is not as widespread, indeed. However we can overcome it by placing his hand on the kettle, when this begins to burnt and becomes difficult to keep the palm the temperature is right (sure whether to froth the milk is a Norwegian sailor’s speech may be different…)

Once that the milk is ready we close the steam and take away the jug from the kettle (never do the opposite) and begins to ‘work’ the milk. We have to hit the jug gently to eliminate the bubbles (it only works if the milk is mounted well, otherwise you can beat it until the day after) and move the jug with wheel and large movement blending milk and foam, which tend to separate each other very quickly. If the milk is well amalgamated will be easy to pour foam and milk together.

Then we pour the milk, and we enter in the world of latte art, we will speak about…

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